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脱去警服 建造一个中国同性恋者的网络王国

发布日期:2023-10-03 00:41浏览次数:
本文摘要:BEIJING北京MA BAOLI was accustomed to secrets.以前的马保力习惯于与秘密终日。By day, he was a police officer in northern China with a wife and a knack for street chases. 白天,他是中国北方的一名未婚警员,有为街头追杀的诀窍。


BEIJING北京MA BAOLI was accustomed to secrets.以前的马保力习惯于与秘密终日。By day, he was a police officer in northern China with a wife and a knack for street chases. 白天,他是中国北方的一名未婚警员,有为街头追杀的诀窍。

By night, he led a life as a gay man, furtively running a website for gay people across China at a time when many were viewed as criminals and deviants.晚上,他以一名男同的身份生活,在很多同性恋者被当作罪犯和异端的年代,秘密运营着一家面向中国各地同性恋者的网站。For 16 years, Mr Ma kept his secret, worried that coming out would mean expulsion from the police force and estrangement from his family. 马保力在16年间激进着自己的秘密,担忧一旦出柜就不会被清扫出有警员队伍,并遭家人的亲近。

Then in 2012, his superiors at a police department in Qinhuangdao, a coastal city in Hebei Province, uncovered his website and he resigned.到了2012年,他在河北省沿海城市秦皇岛一家警察局的上司找到了他的网站,于是他辞任了公职。His job lost, his family struggling to accept his sexuality, Mr Ma set out to turn his passion for connecting gay people into an empire. 马保力仍然满怀热情,想把同性恋者连结起来。

毁掉了工作、性取向无法获得家人尊重的他,开始致力于把这份热情转化成一个王国。He created Blued, now China’s most popular gay dating app with an estimated value of $600 million and more than three million active daily users, about as many as Grindr, a popular gay dating app in the United States.他创立了Blued,眼下是中国最热门的同性恋者约会应用程序,估值为6亿美元,日活跃用户多达300万人——与美国甚广热门的同性恋者约会应用程序Grindr的用户数非常。Mr Ma, 39, said he saw his mission as working to legitimize same-sex relationships at a time when gay people, especially in China, still face discrimination.现年39岁的马保力说道,他指出自己的愿景是在当下这个同性恋者——特别是在是中国的同性恋者仍然受到种族歧视的时代,致力于让同性关系获得拒绝接受。

In the past people wouldn’t even talk about homosexuality because they thought it was dirty, it was filthy, he said. 过去大家避谈同性恋者,因为他们实在同性恋者很古怪很可怕,他说道。The internet can help support gay lifestyles, to make people know they are not alone and that their feelings are genuine.互联网对于同性恋者的生活方式给与了不少反对,也使得很多人了解到他们并不是妒的,他们的感情也是真诚的。

Mr Ma also sees a lucrative business opportunity in China’s so-called pink economy, as more people look to spend money on gay-themed social networking sites, entertainment and travel. 此外,当更多人未来将会把钱花上在以同性恋者为主题的社交网站、娱乐和旅游上的时候,马保力在中国的所谓粉色经济中看见了一个有利可图的商业机会。The spending power of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in China is estimated at $460 billion per year, making them the largest market in Asia, according to LGBT Capital, an investment management firm.投资管理公司LGBT资本(LGBT Capital)称之为,据估计,中国女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋和横跨性别人群每年的消费能力为4600亿美元,在亚洲位列榜首。But translating Mr Ma’s instincts into an enduring business model has proved challenging. 但事实证明,把马保力的直觉变为可持续的商业模式是一个充满著挑战的过程。

Like many popular technology start-ups in China, Blued is only beginning to make a profit; most of its services, including chat, live-streaming and a news feed, are free. 像中国的很多颇受欢迎的科技初创公司一样,Blued才刚刚开始盈利;它的大多数服务,还包括聊天、动态流媒体、信息流,都是免费的。Attracting advertising remains difficult, with some companies reluctant to be associated with a business that caters to gay people.广告客户仍然难以招募,因为一些公司不不愿和一个为同性恋者服务的企业扯上关系。Mr Ma has set his sights on foreign markets, hoping to take on established players like Grindr and Hornet. 马保力早已把目光投向了海外市场,想和Grindr、Hornet等老牌玩家互为抗衡。

While Blued now dominates in China with more than 80 percent of the gay dating market, analysts said it would probably be difficult for the company to build a large following overseas.Blued目前在中国同性恋者约会市场上居住于主导地位,占有着多达80%的市场份额,但分析人士称之为,该公司有可能很难更有大批海外追随者。Culturally, people work differently, said Paul Thompson, a co-founder of LGBT Capital based in Hong Kong. 从文化看作,大家的行事方式各不相同,总部坐落于香港的LGBT资本牵头创始人保罗汤普森(Paul Thompson)回应。

It’s much easier to build up this real concentrated drive in one marketplace than it is to do it in lots of places.集中力量耕耘单个市场要比同时进占很多个地方更容易得多。Growing up in northern China as the son of a factory worker and a housewife, 马保力在中国北方长大成人,父亲是工厂里的一名工人,母亲是家庭主妇。Mr Ma hoped to go to college and become a teacher. 他曾多次期望入大学读书,然后沦为一名老师。

But his parents thought his dreams were too costly, and he was sent to the local police academy instead.但父母指出他的梦想花费太高,将他送入了当地的一所警校。It was there, he said, in a macho culture that revolved around talking about women, that he realized he was gay.他说道,正是在那里,在一种聊天环绕女性进行的硬汉文化中,他意识到自己是同性恋者。

At the time, in the mid-1990s, gay sex was considered a crime in China and homosexuality was classified as a psychological disorder. 当时是上世纪90年代中期,同性性行为被视作犯罪,同性恋者被列入一种心理障碍。At the police academy, Mr Ma took courses on criminal psychology where cadets were told that gay people should be viewed suspiciously because they were more likely to commit crimes.马保力在警校习过犯罪心理学,学员在课堂上被告诉,应当以猜测的眼光看来同性恋者,因为他们更加有可能专门从事犯罪行为。When I realized I was different from other people, he recalled, I thought I was ill.当我意识到我和其他人不一样的时候,他回想道,我以为自己病了。Mr Ma turned to the internet for advice. 马保力曾到网上谋求建议。

But instead of finding a supportive community, he found rants describing gay people as lunatics and perverts. 但他未能寻找一个可以带给协助反对的社区,而是找到了一些把同性恋者叙述成疯子和变态的宣泄言论。On health websites, he was bombarded with recommendations to seek medication and electroshock treatment.在身体健康网站上,他看见了过于多关于就医以及拒绝接受电击化疗的建议。After becoming a police officer, Mr Ma was inspired in 2000 to start his own website, Danlan.org, Chinese for light blue, evoking the clear coastal skies of his childhood. 不受此感受到,马保力当上警员以后,于2000年创立了自己的网站淡蓝(Danlan.org),这个名字来自他小时候沿海地区澄澈的天空。

The site offered chat forums and advice on reducing the risk of H.I.V. and other sexually transmitted diseases. 网站上有聊天论坛,还获取减少病毒感染HIV及患有其他性传播疾病风险的建议。Danlan soon became a popular way for gay men in China to connect in an age when many had been resorting to scrawling meeting dates and places on bathroom stalls, worried about the stigma of coming out.在此前的中国,由于担忧出柜所带给的耻辱,很多同性恋者都是在公厕座位间内草草写会面的时间和地点,而淡蓝迅速就出了颇受男同青睐的联络平台。

At work, Mr Ma chased burglars, filed incident reports and recorded public service announcements. 在本职工作中,马保力要追杀窃贼、给事件报告文档、录音公共服务宣传片。In his spare time, he raced to the keyboard, writing essays for Danlan and chatting with friends under the pseudonym Geng Le.在业余时间里,他不会迫不及待地敲打键盘,以耿乐这个化名为淡蓝写文章、跟朋友聊天。

Mr Ma kept up the routine for more than a decade. 马保力就这样日复一日地生活了十多年。He married, under pressure from friends and family. 在来自亲友的压力下,他结婚。But when his supervisors confronted him about his website in 2012, he offered his resignation. 但在2012年,当上司就其网站质问他的时候,他提交了请辞。

His family was devastated.他的家庭遭到了毁灭性的压制。Both of his parents were very traditional, 他的父母都是很传统的人,实在自己的小孩有一份很不俗的工作。and they thought their kid had a really good job, said Wu Guoxin, 38, a friend from the police academy. 马保力念警校时交给的朋友吴国新的说道。

There was nothing he could do.他自己也挺无能为力的。Mr Ma’s relationship with his wife soon dissolved. 马保力和妻子的婚姻迅速之后土崩瓦解。His mother was stricken with cancer and Mr Ma worried that his decision to come out had contributed to her illness. 他母亲患上了癌症,他担忧自己的出柜要求是造成母亲生病的因素之一。

The family agreed to never speak about his sexuality again.全家人完全一致要求,很久不谈论他的性取向了。IN his new life as a high-powered technology executive, Mr Ma still goes by the alias from his Danlan days, Geng Le. 作为一名位高权重的科技企业高管,马保力在新生活中仍以淡蓝网时代的化名耿乐示人。In meetings with business partners, he retains the deliberative demeanor of a police officer, nodding his head intently in silence, as if interviewing a witness at a crime scene.会见商业伙伴时,他的言行举止仍然具有当警员时的谨慎做派,不会安安静静、心无旁骛地低头,好像正在犯罪现场告知目击者证人。

In a sprawling office in central Beijing, 在坐落于北京市中心的可观办公室里,马保力领导着大约由200名员工包含的团队。where portraits of scantily clad men hang on the wall, Mr Ma leads a team of about 200 employees. 办公室的墙上挂着一些衣着曝露的男人的图像。In one corner, workers scan Blued posts for illegal pornography. 一个角落里,工作人员正在扫瞄Blued上的帖子,搜索非法色情内容。

In another, a team adds Chinese subtitles to a movie that Blued produced in Thailand.另一个角落里,一个团队于是以给Blued在泰国制作的一部电影再加中文字幕。The company is trying to increase its revenue by expanding into gay travel and entertainment.该公司正试图把业务扩展到同性恋者旅游和娱乐领域,以增加收入。

Mr Ma also hopes to bring more advertising to the app, and he sees potential for growth in live-streaming features, 马保力还期望给这个应用程序冲到更加多广告,他从动态流媒体功能中看见了快速增长的潜力。a wildly popular form of communication in China. 在中国,动态流媒体是一种颇受欢迎的通讯方式。

Blued has more than 200,000 hosts who broadcast around the clock on a variety of topics — music, dating, fitness and cooking. Blued上逾20万名主播,不会全天上载与音乐、约会、健美、烹调等多种话题有关的内容。Some earn up to $15,000 a month in tips paid by users, the company says, with Blued taking a share of each payment.该公司称之为,有些主播每个月接到的用户打赏多达1.5万美元,Blued能从每笔打赏中取得分为。As he works to build his business, Mr Ma said he was also looking for ways to improve the lives of gay people in China. 马保力说道,他一旁致力于创立企业,一旁想方设法地提高中国同性恋者群体的生活。Blued offers free H.I.V. testing at clinics in Beijing, and the company has helped pay to fly same-sex couples to the United States to be married.在北京的一些医院里,Blued获取免费的HIV检测,该公司还协助一些飞抵美国成婚的同性情侣筹措了涉及费用。

Mr Ma said he was optimistic that long-entrenched stereotypes were fading in China and that within two decades, the country would embrace ideas like same-sex marriage.马保力说道他悲观地指出,在中国,长期存在的刻板印象正在淡化,不来20年,这个国家将不会拒绝接受同性婚姻一类的观念。He quoted his idol, the Alibaba.com founder Jack Ma, in describing both the challenge of building a successful start-up in China and the struggles of the gay-rights movement.提到在中国打造出一家顺利的初创企业所面对的挑战,以及积极开展同性恋者权利运动所遇上的艰难,他提到了他的偶像、阿里巴巴创始人马云的话。When I’m at my most painful moments, he said, I remember what Jack Ma said: ‘Today is hard, tomorrow will be worse, but the day after tomorrow will be sunshine.’ 我最伤痛的时候,他说道,总会回想马云的一句话:‘今天很残忍,明天更加残忍,后天不会很幸福。



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